By Nancy R. Reagin
Nancy Reagin analyzes the rhetoric, options, and courses of greater than 80 bourgeois women's institutions in Hanover, a wide provincial capital, from the Imperial interval to the Nazi seizure of strength. She examines the social and demographic foundations of the Hanoverian women's stream, interweaving neighborhood heritage with advancements at the nationwide point. utilizing the German adventure as a case learn, Reagin explores the hyperlinks among political conservatism and a feminist schedule in response to a trust in innate gender differences.Reagin's research contains a big range of women's organizations—feminist, nationalist, spiritual, philanthropic, political, undefined. It specializes in the ways that bourgeois women's category historical past and political socialization, and their aid of the belief of 'spiritual motherhood,' mixed inside of an antidemocratic weather to provide a conservative, maternalist method of women's matters and different political concerns. in accordance with Reagin, the truth that the women's flow developed during this means is helping to provide an explanation for why such a lot of middle-class ladies discovered nationwide Socialism attractive.
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Extra info for A German women's movement: class and gender in Hanover, 1880-1933
Liberal politicians in municipal administrations made decisions based on a consensus that had been reached among local Honoratioren (notables), and clubs and associations played an important role in articulating this consensus. 19 In some cities, restrictions on local franchises were loose enough to permit SPD candidates to win municipal elections, but not in Hanover. Hanover's National Liberal Party leaders, who dominated local government, successfully defended the city's 1858 constitution against attempts to reform suffrage restrictions and broaden popular participation.
In addition, Hanover's position in the railroad network guaranteed that it became the regional center for transportation and commerce. Laws passed after 1866 to encourage industrialization contributed to growth in the manufacturing sector; by 1875, Hanover boasted 470 large factories, including heavy industry, chemical production, and textile plants. The city's demographic profile reflected its economic development. 2 Most of the city's population was Protestant. 3 Hanover's elite groups were almost exclusively Protestant; local Catholics were disproportionately working-class immigrants from other regions who had been drawn to the city by its industrial development.
Set adrift in Weimar Hanover, the organizations that made up the center and liberal section of the local women's movement attracted fewer new women; the movement as a whole was aging. The introduction of local democracy had not proved a happy development for the movement. In addition, the members of the women's movement, like other bourgeois Hanoverians, suffered materially during the Weimar period. The inflation of 1923 hit many clubwomen, dependent on pensions or fixed incomes, particularly hard.
A German women's movement: class and gender in Hanover, 1880-1933 by Nancy R. Reagin