By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the USA to lessen the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? fresh American presidents have utilized replacement clash answer ways. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, speaking difficult yet infrequently retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter process and the worldwide struggle on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this procedure. Obama brought a 3rd replacement: challenge fixing and increasing peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the tactic prevail? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage in the course of the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in various speeches brought via those leader executives to focus on and evaluate their clash solution thoughts.
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Additional resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
A good match between a news item and habitual schemes pulls a frame into people’s thoughts with virtually no cognitive cost—with little time consuming cogitation or costly searching memory for meaning or relevance,” states Entman (p. 15). The September 11 terrorist attacks provide an example: little cognitive effort was needed to make the connections promoted by the administration’s frame of the event. Previous information had activated mental pathways connecting similar or identical concepts in the past.
People use mental filters to make sense of incoming information. Framing is effective because it is a heuristic or mental shortcut. Frames are often found within a narrative account of an issue or event, and are generally the central organizing idea. Iyengar (1991) proposes two types of policy understanding frames, the “episodic” that tends to focus on individuals (to blame poverty on a lack of motivation or ability on the part of the poor, for example), and “thematic,” which focus on broader social and economic forces (to blame poverty on structural economic problems or a lack of political will, for example).
Reframing is an essential part of the communication process between the protagonists; the art of reframing, often crafted by third party mediators, is to maintain the features of a conflict in all its richness but to help the opponents look at it in a more open-minded and hopeful way so they can see solution forms. It can be used to diffuse a conflict by reducing the climate of hostility. Reframing means redirecting the other side’s attention away from its preferred positions on an issue, that is, particular, single solutions beneficial only to that party, and toward the task of identifying interests, inventing creative options, and discussing fair standards for selecting an option (Ury, 1991).
America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency) by K. Feste