By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The amount comprises summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of regularly huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the USA and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the advice that foraging people are responsible, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally occurring within the Americas in the course of the various extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) issues -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; for the reason that then loads of leading edge, intriguing new study has been performed yet has no longer but been compiled and summarized. assorted chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied by way of reviews of strong isotopes and anatomical/physiological features equivalent to development increments in monstrous and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic study approximately large-mammal biology, the purposes of relationship how you can the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human looking of huge mammals.
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Additional resources for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)
2006), provides the first convincing evidence of human hunting of horse in North America (some horse teeth were found at Murray Springs). Two additional Clovis-era dates recently reported from southern Alberta are 10,930 ± 100 BP (TO-8514) for a Columbian mammoth 29 (M. columbi) molar from the Bindloss Gravel Pit, and 10,870 ± 45 BP (CAMS-82411) for an astragalus of horse (E. conversidens) from the Pashley Gravel Pit (Hills and Harington, 2003). Taken collectively, these dates from Alberta appear to demonstrate that the megafauna living at the mouth of the ice-free corridor did not become locally extinct measurably earlier than their congeners farther south.
Several issues are raised by these dates: (1) These are small animals that survived the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, while full-size relatives on the mainland succumbed; so much for the assumption that decreasing body size is the prelude to extinction! (2) These islands were, in fact, attached to the northern and southern edges, respectively, of Beringia prior to inundation of the land bridge about 10,500 BP (12,500 cal bp). Therefore, the founders of these populations, unlike their descendants, had not been protected from human predators (or mainland climate and vegetation changes) by isolation.
The oldest hearth dates with acceptably small errors are: 10,530 ± 140; 10,440 + 225/-220; 10,195 ± 80; 10,170 ± 70; 10,135 ± 95. The dung and charcoal dates together suggest that the sloths disappeared here around 10,300 BP (somewhere in the range from ca. 11,900 to 12,400 cal bp). Terminal dates for Mylodon darwinii at the Cueva del Milodon in Chile are broadly similar, although the large sigmas preclude a precise estimate: 10,200 ± 400, 10,400 ± 330, 10,575 ± 400 BP. Several aspects of the South American record should be stressed: 1.
American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes