By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner
Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of three-d aggregation. protecting either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via quite a few disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to a few of the equipment, commonly optical and acoustic, used to gather 3-dimensional facts over the years. the second one part makes a speciality of analytical equipment used to quantify development, crew kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the staff. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution bargains with the features of aggregative habit from the perspective of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of versions to explain how team dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the crowd.
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Additional info for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
The collinearity condition equations can be extended to include parameters which describe additional systematic errors in the image, such as errors caused by disturbance of the light rays passing through object space, distortion of rays within the camera lens, distortions of the recording medium (film or electronic sensor), and errors attributable to the image-measurement process. To reconstruct an object in three dimensions, it must be photographed from at least two positions. Although the collinearity condition is sufficient to calculate the parameters which describe a stereomodel, the mathematical solution may also be based on the principle of coplanarity.
Typically, fifty points along each of approximately ten plumb lines are observed (Fryer 1992). 2. A control frame for underwater calibrations. On-the-job calibration is used with nonmetric cameras. The technique is the same as calibration ranges except that the control points must surround the object to be measured, and must be used to calibrate the camera for each and every photograph. Although this overcomes the limitations of unstable interior orientation, on-the-job calibration has obvious disadvantages when measuring animal aggregations, namely the inconvenience of requiring some sort of control frame as well as its probable effects on animal behavior.
One image whereas stereocomparators (Fig. 4) allow corresponding images to be measured while the observer views a stereomodel. However, the observer must continually adjust the position of the left and right images because stereocomparators do not automatically maintain the stereomodel. The real advantage of stereocomparators is that by viewing a stereomodel, the observer can ensure that corresponding left and right images of every target are correctly correlated. Reliable correlation of target coordinates measured on a monocomparator, depending on the number and distribution of targets, can be a very difficult task.
Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner